PURIFEED

Soda Ash and Calcium Chloride

Generic names Crystalline layered sodium silicate
Product name PURIFEED
Main applications Additive for civil engineering
Multifunctional detergent builder (auxiliary cleaning agent)
Packing / shipping method Flexible containers and paper bags
Chemical formula δ-Na2O・2SiO2
Special properties ・Alkali performance
・Granule and white powder
・Water softening

Product data

What are Crystalline-Layered Sodium Silicates?

There are two perspectives of sodium silicates.

・Composition: Compound of silica and sodium (alkali)
・Structure: Crystalline, amorphous and liquid

Sodium silicates can be expressed as mNa2O・nSiO2, of which the ratio of n/m is called the mole ratio. There are sodium silicates of various mole ratios. The mole ratio of PURIFEED is 2,
which is the same as that of JIS-1. Sodium silicates can be in crystalline, amorphous and
liquid structures. In addition, some crystalline sodium silicates with a mole ratio of 2 or above have a layered structure. PURIFEED is crystalline with a layered structure, which results in PURIFEED having some properties that general sodium silicates do not have.

High alkali Mole ratio(SiO2/Na2O) High silica
0.5 1 2 3
Crystalline
Sodium
orthosilicate
Sodium
metasilicate
Layered crystal
PURIFEED
Amorphous
Sodium Silicate Powder
TOKUYAMA SILTECH's
Sodium Silicate Powder
Cullet
Liquid
Japan Industrial Standards (JIS)123
Water glass

The following crystalline-layered sodium silicates are known, and PURIFEED has a
δ-Na2Si2O5‒based structure.
*)For data on the configuration of δ-Na2Si2O5 crystal, please refer to the following.

ICDD (International Center of Diffraction Data) card: 22-1396
Na2Si2O45・xH2OKenyaite (naturally produced)
Na2Si14O29 ・xH2OMagadiite (naturally produced)
Na2Si8O17 ・xH2OIlerite
Na2Si4O9 ・xH2OMakatite (naturally produced)
α-Na2Si2O5PURIFEED
δ-Na2Si2O5
β-Na2Si2O5
γ-Na2Si2O5
NaHSi2O5 ・3H2OKanemite (naturally produced)
NaHSi2O5 ・H2O
NaHSi2O5
Kinds of Crystalline-Layered Sodium Silicates

 Image of Crystal
PURIFEED
PURIFEED

 SEM image
SEM image magnified 400 times SEM image magnified 40,000 times SEM image magnified 80,000 times
SEM image magnified
400 times
SEM image magnified
40,000 times
SEM image magnified
80,000 times
SEM image of PURIFEED


Alkali Capabilities

Titration Curb

PURIFEED has alkalinity, as strong as that of a sodium metasilicate
pentahydrate(Na2SiO3・5H2O).

Comparison of Alkaline agents
Comparison of Alkaline agents

pH Buffering Function

PURIFEED has a high pH buffering function, which controls the pH decline caused by such reasons as fatty acid dirt and can maintain a consistent pH level, thereby maintaining a steady detergent cleaning effect.The resulting pH depends on the concentration of PURIFEED added.

pH Stabilization by Adding PURIFEED
pH Stabilization by Adding PURIFEED


Ion Exchange Function

Comparison with Other Chelating Agents

By exchanging ions in water, PURIFEED can capture polyvalent metal ions in a weak alkaline range as do other chelating agents. However, unlike other chelating agents, PURIFEED’s ingredients are environmentally-friendly and there are no concerns of over-nourishing lakes and ponds, low resolvability or causing cancer.

Amount of ions per weight captured by each chelating agent(Unit:mmol/g)
Chelating agentCaMg*AlFeZn
PURIFEED2.12.20.57.38.3
Sodium Tripolyphosphate2.12.82.50.27.9
Tetrasodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate2.32.12.32.59.1
Sodium nitrilotriacetate3.41.82.50.35.9
Blank (only pH arrangement)0.00.00.00.00.0
*pH was set at 9.8 to avoid deposition

Evaluation Method
NaOH was added at 20℃ to one liter of water containing metal ions of 1 mmol/liter so that its pH becomes 10-11(Blank).
A 0.1 g chelating agent was added and stirred for 10 minutes.
The solution was filtered, and the quantity of the filtered solution was measured by chelating titration.


Performance of Sodium Silicates

Prevention of Rusting

Aluminum, which is used for dishes and fasteners, and copper, which is used for pots, are prone to alkali corrosion. Like other sodium silicates, PURIFEED can prevent the corrosion of aluminum and copper.
Experiment 1
An alkaline agent was added to two liters of ion exchange water to make its pH 11.5.
A test piece was immersed.
The surface of the test piece was observed after a designated period of time.
Alkaline agentPURIFEED, Sodium carbonate, Sodium hydroxide
Test piece:Aluminum (99.6% pure, 30 mm × 24 mm × 2 mm)
Copper (equivalent to JIS H3100 C2100P, 30 mm × 24 mm × 2 mm)

Results of the Experiment
Before
processing
After processing
(Temperature kept at 20℃ and pH at 11.5)
PURIFEEDSodium
carbonate
Sodium
hydroxide
Number
of days
AluminumAluminum(Before processing)Aluminum(PURIFEED)Aluminum(Sodium carbonate)Aluminum(Sodium hydroxide)One day
CopperCopper(Before processing)Copper(PURIFEED)Copper(Sodium carbonate)Copper(Sodium hydroxide)Five days
ResultNo changeCorroded
(Significantly)
Corroded

Experiment 2
An alkaline agent (part of the sodium carbonate was replaced with PURIFEED) was added to two liters of ion-exchanged water to make its pH 11.5.
A test piece was immersed.
The surface of the test piece was observed after 24 hours and the weight was measured.
Test piece:Aluminum(99.6% pure, 30 mm × 24 mm × 2 mm)
Copper(equivalent to JIS H3100 C2100P, 30 mm × 24 mm × 2 mm)

Results of the Experiment
Amount of PURIFEED used to replace the sodium carbonate
Blank
(Before
experiment)
0%
(sodium
carbonate
only)
1%3%5%100%
(purified only)
AluminumAluminum(Before processing)
 
Aluminum(0%)
(6.0%)
Aluminum(1%)
(5.4%)
Aluminum(3%)
(4.4%)
Aluminum(5%)
(0.0%)
Aluminum(100%)
(0.0%)
CopperCopper(Before processing)
 
Copper(0%)
(0.002%)
Copper(1%)
(0.001%)
Copper(3%)
(0.000%)
Copper(5%)
(0.000%)
Copper(100%)
(0.000%)
CorrosionExistsNot found
Conditions: Temperature was kept at 25℃, pH 11.5 and the duration of the processing was 24 hours.
The figures in parentheses in the table indicate the weight reduction ratio.

Comparison with Other Sodium Silicates

PURIFEED Has the Ion Exchange Capability.

Sodium silicates in general do not have the capability to capture hardening elements such as calcium and magnesium in water, whereas PURIFEED can capture calcium efficiently.
Ca binding Speed
Ca binding Speed

Less Scale Formation

Sodium silicates in general have a problem reacting with hardening ingredients in water, becoming such substances as calcium silicate, thereby forming scale on a wall. PURIFEED, on the other hand, disperses in water and the dispersed particles capture hardening ingredients, which prevents the formation of scale such as calcium silicate on a wall. This property of PURIFEED helps prevent equipment malfunction and reduce maintenance.
Test
Scale Formation TestScale Test Procedure

Results of the Experiment
Heater after the scale formation acceleration test
Before the
experiment
PURIFEEDSodium
metasilicate
Front
Side
Front Side(experiment)Front Side(PURIFEED)Front Side(Sodium Metasilicate)
Bottom
Side
Bottom Side(experiment)Bottom Side(PURIFEED)Bottom Side(Sodium Metasilicate)
Scale
Formation
No scale attached0.5
mg/cm2/30 batches
80
mg/cm2/30 batches
Heater after the scale formation acceleration test

Pattern Diagrams
scale is formed mechanism(PURIFEED) scale is formed mechanism(Sodium Metasilicate)

Hard to caking

Sodium silicates in general tend to absorb moisture in the air and caking, whereas PURIFEED does not easily absorb moisture. This property of PURIFEED helps reduce the risk of caking during the storage time and after PURIFEED is added to a product.
PURIFEEDSodium
carbonate
Sodium
silicate powder
Sodium
metasilicate
Before the
experiment
Before the experiment(PURIFEED)処理前(Sodium carbonate)Before the experiment(Sodium Silicate Powder)Before the experiment(Sodium metasilicate)
After two
weeks
After two weeks(PURIFEED)After two weeks(Sodium carbonate)After two weeks(Sodium Silicate Powder)After two weeks(Sodium metasilicate)
ConditionSlightly finer than beforeAlmost no changeDeliquescentCoagulated
Change of the Surface Condition after the Moisture Absorption Test

Hard to Decompose Sodium Percarbonate

Sodium silicates in general work as a catalyst for decomposition when it comes into contact with sodium percarbonate, which leads the sodium percarbonate to return to sodium carbonate, thereby emitting active oxygen. On the other hand, PURIFEED does not work as a catalyst for decomposition and therefore does not reduce active oxygen even though it is stored with sodium percarbonate. Due to this property, when end users use PURIFEED, we can expect the effect of sodium percarbonate.
Sodium percarbonate → Sodium carbonate + Active oxygen + Water
scale is formed mechanism(Sodium metasilicate)
Change of Active Oxygen in Sodium Percarbonate Over Time


Capabilities as a Chemical Agent for Environmental Purification

Capability to Eliminate Dioxins

PURIFEED, inserted in water that is being stirred, quickly disperses and becomes fine particles. During the process, it captures dioxins and dioxin-like substances that are loose in the water. After being captured by PURIFEED particles, dioxins and dioxin-like substances can be removed together with the particles.
Processing procedure with the sham waste water
Toxic substance volume
(Unit:pg-TEQ/L)
Before
processing
After
processing
Dioxins2,3,7,8-TeCDD24<0.9
1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD64<1.0
1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD8.7<0.16
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD170.12
Dibenzofuran2,3,7,8-TeCDF5.9<0.09
2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF1302.6
1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF11008.5
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF300020
OCDF3601.8
Coplanar-PCB3,3’,4,4’,5’-PeCB3.20.38
3,3’,4,4’,5,5’-HxCB0.6<0.016
Total470033


Safety Data on PURIFEED

Product name PURIFEED (crystalline-layered sodium silicate)
Substance identification Sodium silicate
CAS number CAS: 13870-28-5, EINECS: 237-623-4
Applicable laws
■None applicable
□Fire Service Act□Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR)
□Industrial Safety and Health Act□Food Sanitation Act
□Poisonous and Deleterious Substances Control Law□Other laws
First aid
In case the substance gets into the eyeswash it away with plenty of water immediately and see a doctor.
In case the substance gets on the skinwash it with water and soap
In case someone happens to inhale the substanceimmediately move the person to a place where the air is clean. If the person has difficulty breathing or stops breathing, conduct mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
In case someone swallows the substancemake the person drink plenty of water immediately to make him/her vomit and take him/her to a doctor afterward.
In case of a fire
Method to put out a fireAlthough PURIFEED is nonflammable, in case a fire breaks out in the surrounding area, ensure that you put on protective gear and extinguish the fire from the windward side toward the lee side.
Fire extinguishantsplay water
In case of a leak After collecting the substance with a broom or something equivalent, wash it away from the area. Neutralize the wastewater before the discharge.
Caution in handling and storage
In handling PURIFEEDput on long-sleeved work clothes and protective gear and carefully handle the substance to prevent the substance from getting in the eyes or on the skin
To store PURIFEEDtightly seal the container and store it in a dry place.
Exposure prevention measure Put on protective gear.
■Protective gear for breathing■Protective glasses
■Protective gloves■Protective clothes
Risk Information(*1) If the substance gets inside the eyes, there is a serious risk of injury.
Hazard information (*1)
Irritating property (skin)Non-irritant (rabbit)
Irritating property (eye membrane)There is a serious risk of a hazard (rabbit).
Acute toxicityLD50value >2,000mg/kg
Route: Oral, Animal for experiment: Mouse
Acute inhalation toxicityLD50value >3.51mg/l(4h;mouse)
Information on environmental influence
BiodegradabilityNot known
CODNo data available
Toxicity for fishLC50 >500mg/l(96h;zebra fish)
Other (*1)The source of the information in this document is Tokuyama Siltech, which, however, does not guarantee the completeness of the information provided herein. In addition, the content of the Material Safety Data Sheet may be revised as relevant laws and regulations change or when new knowledge is acquired.
※Excerpt from the Material Safety Data Sheet.

The product data posted herein is the information that is currently available. Depending on the Company’s manufacturing operations, the product data are subject to change.

For more information:

Tokyo Sales Section 2, Chemicals East Japan Sales Department,
Chemicals Business Division
TEL: +81-3-5207-2512
FAX: +81-3-5207-2574

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